Exploring Romania

Venture into the heart of Romania, a captivating country with a rich history, diverse culture, and breathtaking landscapes. Discover a nation that has transformed itself over the years, from ancient Dacia to a vibrant member of the European Union. Ready to embark on a journey through time and unveil the hidden treasures of this southeastern European gem? Let’s begin!

Exploring Romania

Key takeaways

  • Romania is a culturally diverse nation located in Europe with an array of attractions and transportation infrastructure.
  • Romania has seen economic growth, fosters cultural heritage through its nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and plays a role in international organizations such as the European Union, NATO, and the United Nations.

Romania at a glance

Exploring Romania

Romania, a southeastern European country, captivates with its rich history, diverse population, and strategic location in eastern Europe. Nestled between the Black Sea and five neighboring countries, Romania spans the ancient Moldavian Plateau and the picturesque regions of Transylvania and Walachia. With a population of 19.5 million and a capital city of Bucharest, Romania’s independence has been shaped by wars, alliances, and an enduring Latin heritage.

Location and geography

Romania’s geography boasts the majestic Carpathian Mountains, the fertile Transylvanian Basin, and the mighty Danube River. With a temperate climate and rich natural resources, Romania is a land of contrasts, from the lush Danube Delta region to the sun kissed Black Sea coastline and the expansive Walachian Plain.

The country’s strategic location has made it an important player in European politics since ancient times, having experienced both the rise and fall of empires, including the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman.

Exploring Romania

Population and ethnic groups

Romania is home to around 19 million people, with Romanians making up the majority ethnic group. The country is also enriched by the presence of Hungarians, Rromani people, and other diverse communities. The official language is Romanian, spoken by the majority, with Hungarian and Rromani also spoken in some regions. Romania’s linguistic and ethnic diversity is a testament to its colorful history and vibrant culture.

History and independence

Romania’s storied past features a tapestry of historical events and milestones. Gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, the nation endured communist rule after World War II before transitioning to democracy in 1989.

Today, Romania stands as a proud member of the European Union, continuing to evolve and shape its unique identity while honoring its ancient roots.

Economy and industry

Exploring Romania

Romania’s economy has experienced growth in recent years, driven by consumption and investments. The country’s key industries include automotive, IT, and energy, which together contribute to a high income, service and industrial based economy. Despite challenges such as fiscal deficit and regional disparities, Romania has become an attractive destination for foreign direct investment, particularly from the European Union and the United States.

Culture and language

Exploring Romania

Language, religion, and UNESCO World Heritage Sites reflect Romania’s rich cultural heritage. The official language is Romanian, a Romance language with Latin roots, while Romanian Orthodox Christianity is the predominant religion.

The country boasts nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, showcasing its diverse cultural and historical heritage, from ancient Dacian fortresses to medieval fortifications.

Romanian language – Eastern Europe

Most of the population speaks Romanian, followed by Hungarian and Romani. As part of the Eastern Romance sub-branch of Romance languages, Romanian has evolved from various dialects of Vulgar Latin and shares similarities with Italian, French, and Spanish. However, its unique development and historical influences give Romanian its distinct characteristics.

Cultural heritage and UNESCO sites

Nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Romania each showcase a unique aspect of its cultural and historical heritage. These sites include the Painted Monasteries of Bucovina, the Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains, the Historic Centre of Sighisoara, and the Danube Delta.

From Byzantine frescoes to medieval architecture, Romania’s UNESCO sites offer a fascinating glimpse into its past and the diverse influences that have shaped its culture.

Travel and tourism

Exploring Romania

From the bustling capital of Bucharest to the enchanting landscapes of Transylvania, Romania offers a wealth of tourist attractions. The country’s well developed transportation infrastructure and safe travel environment make it an appealing destination for travelers seeking to explore its rich history, stunning scenery, and vibrant culture.

Top tourist destinations

Bucharest, with its blend of historic and modern architecture, the legendary castles and fortified churches of Transylvania, the pristine Danube Delta, and the beaches of the Black Sea coast hold the top spots among Romania’s tourist destinations.

Whether it’s exploring the ancient Dacian fortresses or immersing oneself in the lively streets of Bucharest, Romania offers unforgettable experiences for every traveler.

Transportation infrastructure

Airports, railways, roadways, and waterways make up Romania’s transportation infrastructure, facilitating convenient access to various parts of the country. With 12 international airports, an extensive rail network, and a vast system of roads and highways, travelers can comfortably explore the many wonders that Romania has to offer.

Ongoing efforts to improve the transportation infrastructure, including local stations and vehicle parts, promise to further enhance the travel experience in the years to come.

Romania’s role in international organizations

Exploring Romania

Active membership in various international organizations, including the European Union, NATO, and the United Nations, characterizes Romania. As part of these organizations, the country contributes to promoting global peace, security, and sustainable development.

Romania’s involvement in international organizations highlights its commitment to collaboration and the pursuit of shared objectives.

European Union membership

Exploring Romania

In 2007, Romania joined the European Union, having benefits from economic integration and access to development funds. EU membership has brought about improvements in various sectors, such as infrastructure development, research subsidies, and enhanced political stability.

As a member of the EU, Romania, under the leadership of President Klaus Iohannis, actively participates in shaping the future of the European community.

NATO involvement

Romania, a NATO member since 2004, has contributed to the alliance’s collective defense and participated in international missions. As a NATO member, Romania promotes the values and objectives of the organization and plays a significant role in developing Ukraine’s cyber defense.

Romania’s involvement in NATO underscores its dedication to global security and collaboration with other member states.

United Nations participation

Promotion of global peace, security, and sustainable development marks Romania’s participation in various United Nations initiatives. The country has been involved in numerous UN peacekeeping missions, supported peace plans, and contributed to international missions.

Romania’s active participation in the United Nations highlights its commitment to fostering global cooperation and addressing shared challenges.

Government and politics

Romania, a semi-presidential republic, sees its future shaped by multiple political parties and recent political developments. The country’s political landscape has evolved over time, from ancient Dacia to its current status as a vibrant member of the European Union. As Romania continues to grow and adapt, its government and political institutions remain committed to upholding democratic values and promoting the well being of its citizens.


In conclusion, Romania is a captivating country with a rich history, diverse culture, and breathtaking landscapes. From its ancient roots to its modern achievements, Romania continues to evolve and grow, making it a fascinating destination for travelers and a vital player on the global stage. As the country forges ahead, its commitment to democratic values, international cooperation, and sustainable development remains unwavering, ensuring a bright future for the nation and its people.

Frequently asked questions

Do they speak English in Romania?

Yes, English is widely spoken in Romania. Most of the urban population can speak it fluently and it is taught in schools from primary to upper secondary grades. In cities, many people understand and speak English, as well as some other languages like Spanish and French.

Where is Romania?

Located in Southeastern Europe, Romania borders the Black Sea, Hungary to the northwest, Serbia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, Moldova to the east and Ukraine to the north. It is part of the Balkan nations and situated at the crossroads of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe.

Are there any UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Romania?

Yes, Romania is home to nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, highlighting its unique cultural and historical significance.

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